Uganda: Water and Sanitation


Access to water
72% (JMP, 2010),[1] 66% (MWE, 2011) [2]

Access to sanitation
34% (JMP, 2010 estimate),[1] 70% in rural areas and 81% in urban areas (MWE, 2011 estimate) [2]

Continuity of supply (%)
20–24 hours per day in large towns [3]

Average urban water use (liter/capita/day)
44 [4]

Average urban water tariff (US$/m3)

Share of household metering
99% in large towns (2006)[6]

Annual investment in water supply and sanitation
US$2.37 per capita[7][8][9]

Sources of financing
Mainly external donors


Decentralization to municipalities
Since 1997:
To districts, towns and sub-counties[10]

National water and sanitation company
National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC), in large towns

Water and sanitation regulator

Responsibility for policy setting
Ministry of Water and Environment

Sector law

Number of urban service providers

Number of rural service providers

This article has last been updated on substance in July 2012. Please feel free to further update it if need be.
The Ugandan water supply and sanitation sector has made substantial progress in urban areas since the mid-1990s, with substantial increases in coverage as well as in operational and commercial performance.[11] Sector reforms in the period 1998–2003 included the commercialization and modernization of the National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) operating in cities and larger towns, as well as decentralization and private sector participation in small towns. [12]
These reforms have attracted significant international attention. However, 38% of the population still had no access to an improved water source in 2010. Concerning access to improved sanitation, figures vary widely: According to government figures it was 70% in rural areas and 81% in urban areas,[2] while according to UN figures it was only 34%.[1]
The water and sanitation sector has been recognized as a key area under the 2004 Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP), Uganda’s main strategy paper to fight poverty.[13] A comprehensive expenditure framework has been introduced to coordinate financial support by external donors, the national government, and NGOs.[14] The PEAP estimates that from 2001 to 2015, about US$1.4 billion, or US$92 million per year, are needed to increase water supply coverage up to 95%.[15]


1 Access
2 Service quality

2.1 Continuity of supply
2.2 Drinking water quality